Styrene Maleic Acid Lipid Particles (SMALPs)


Styrene Maleic Acid Lipid Particles (SMALPs) are an emerging concept in biomedical research. SMALPs provide a single-step detergent-free solution for membrane protein solubilization without compromising the protein structure or activity [1,2]. Our SMALP products contain amphipathic co-polymers that interact with lipid bilayers to form nanoparticles, including any membrane proteins present. This way, the proteins remain in their native environment, in contrast to detergents.

SMALPs perform well in a majority of expression systems and have been proven to work for a broad range of membrane protein classes, including ABC-transporters [3], ion channels [4] and GPCRs [2,5]. SMALP nanodiscs possess over excellent thermal stability, can be freeze dried for storage and dispersed in water without loss of their native function [2,4,6]. Solubilization with SMALPs can be performed in a range of temperatures and conditions. To allow further optimization, we offer a range of SMALP products designed for protein solubilization purposes in various conditions.

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1. Knowles, T., Finka, R., Smith, C., Lin, Y., Dafforn, T. and Overduin, M., 2009. Membrane Proteins Solubilized Intact in Lipid Containing Nanoparticles Bounded by Styrene Maleic Acid Copolymer. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 131(22), pp.7484-7485.
2. Jamshad, M., Charlton, J., Lin, Y., Routledge, S., Bawa, Z., Knowles, T., Overduin, M., Dekker, N., Dafforn, T., Bill, R., Poyner, D. and Wheatley, M., 2015. G-protein coupled receptor solubilization and purification for biophysical analysis and functional studies, in the total absence of detergent. Bioscience Reports, 35(2).
3. Gulati, S., Jamshad, M., Knowles, T., Morrison, K., Downing, R., Cant, N., Collins, R., Koenderink, J., Ford, R., Overduin, M., Kerr, I., Dafforn, T. and Rothnie, A., 2014. Detergent-free purification of ABC (ATP-binding-cassette) transporters. Biochemical Journal, 461(2), pp.269-278.
4. Dörr, J., Koorengevel, M., Schäfer, M., Prokofyev, A., Scheidelaar, S., van der Cruijsen, E., Dafforn, T., Baldus, M. and Killian, J., 2014. Detergent-free isolation, characterization, and functional reconstitution of a tetrameric K+channel: The power of native nanodiscs. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 111(52), pp.18607-18612.
5. Routledge, S., Jamshad, M., Little, H., Lin, Y., Simms, J., Thakker, A., Spickett, C., Bill, R., Dafforn, T., Poyner, D. and Wheatley, M., 2020. Ligand-induced conformational changes in a SMALP-encapsulated GPCR. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Biomembranes, 1862(6), p.183235.
6. Swainsbury, D., Scheidelaar, S., van Grondelle, R., Killian, J. and Jones, M., 2014. Bacterial Reaction Centers Purified with Styrene Maleic Acid Copolymer Retain Native Membrane Functional Properties and Display Enhanced Stability. Angewandte Chemie International Edition, 53(44), pp.11803-11807.

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